Vowel quadrilateral
A vowel diagram or vowel chart is a schematic arrangement of the vowels. Depending on the particular language being discussed, it can take the form of a triangle or a quadrilateral. Vertical position on the diagram denotes the vowel closeness, with close vowels at the top of the diagram, and horizontal position denotes the vowel backness, with front vowels at the left of the diagram. Vowels are unique in that their main features do not contain differences in voicing, manner, or place (articulators). Vowels differ only in the position of the tongue when voiced. The tongue moves either vertically and horizontally within the oral cavity. Vowels are produced with at least a part of their vocal tract obstructed.
In the vowel diagram,convenient reference points are provided for specifying tongue position. The position of the highest point of the arch of the tongue is considered to be the point of articulation of the vowel. The vertical dimension of the vowel diagram is known as vowel high, which includes high, central (mid), or low vowels. The horizontal dimension of the vowel diagram includes tongue advancement and identifies how far forward the tongue is located in the oral cavity during production. Vowels are also categorized by the tenseness or laxness of the tongue. The schwa [ə] is in the center of the chart and is frequently referred to as the neutral vowel. Here, the vocal tract is in its neutral state and creates a near perfect tube. For other vowels, there is a necessary movement of the vocal tract and tongue away from the neutral position, either up/down or backward/forward. The next dimension for vowels are tense/lax; here we can distinguish high/mid/low dimensions and the front/central/back dimensions. In other words, all vowels but schwas. For instance, [i] and [ɪ] or [o] and [ɔ] are very hard to tell apart, but we can categorize them into tense or lax. Tense vowels are [i] and [ɔ] . Lax vowels are [ɪ] and [o]. The next dimension for vowels are rounding. Rounding is important because it continues to help differentiate the vowels of English. For example, when you say [u], your lips are rounded but when you say [i], your lips are spread. We can categorize vowels as rounded or unrounded. So, rounded vowels are [u], [ʊ], [o], [ɔ] and the unrounded vowels are [i], [ɪ], [e], [ɛ], [æ], [ɑ], [ʌ], [ə].
The vowel systems of most languages can be represented by vowel diagrams. Usually there is a pattern of even distribution of marks on the chart, a phenomenon that is known as vowel dispersion. For most languages, the vowel system is triangular. Only 10% of languages, including the English language, have a vowel diagram that is quadrilateral. Such diagrams are termed vowel trapezia or vowel quadrilaterals. German phonologists know these as, respectively, a Vokalviereck and a Vokaltrapez.
Different vowels vary in pitch. For example, high vowels such as [i] and [u] tend to have higher fundamental frequency then low vowels such as [a]. Vowels are distinct from each other based on their acoustic form, or spectral properties. Spectral properties consist of the speech sound's fundamental frequency and its formants. Each vowel in the vowel diagram has a unique first and second formant, or F1 and F2. The frequency of the first formant refers to the width of the pharyngeal cavity and the position of the tongue on a vertical axis, ranging from open to close. The frequency of the second formant refers to the length of the oral cavity and the position of the tongue on a horizontal axis. Vowels [i], [u], and [a] are often referred to as point vowels because they represent the most extreme F1 and F2 frequencies. [a] has a high F1 frequency because of the narrow size of the pharynx and the low position of the tongue. F2 is higher in the case of [i] because the oral cavity is short and the tongue is at the front of the mouth. F2 is low in the production of [u] because the mouth is elongated and the lips are rounded while the pharynx is lowered.
The IPA vowel chart comprises the cardinal vowels, and is displayed in the form of a trapezium. By definition, no vowel sound can be plotted outside of the IPA trapezium because its four corners represent the extreme points of articulation. The vowel diagrams of most real languages are not so extreme. In English, for example, high vowels are not as high as the corners of the IPA trapezium, nor are front vowels as front.

This is an excerpt from the article Vowel quadrilateral from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.
The article Vowel quadrilateral at en.wikipedia.org was accessed 28 times in the last 30 days. (as of: 08/28/2013)
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Vowel Quadrilateral
A Vowel quadrilateral is very useful in memorizing the tongue height and advancement. From the above image, it is easy to determine where each vowel falls.
tiger.towson.edu/~kmamar1/vowel_quadrilateral.html
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Vowel diagram - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Depending on the particular language being discussed, it can take the form of a triangle or a quadrilateral. Vertical position on the diagram denotes the vowel ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vowel_diagram
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Fun with Phonemes: Vowel Quadrilateral
Tuesday, February 10, 2009. Vowel quadrilateral. Posted by firestar at 12:53 PM. No comments: Post a Comment. Newer Post Older Post Home. Subscribe to: ...
funphonemes.blogspot.com/2009/02/vowel-quadrilateral.html
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Vowel Quadrilateral
7B The Vowel quadrilateral: visualising vowel quality. English Phonetics — Classifying English Sounds. The Vowel quadrilateral is a graphic representation of ...
www.sz.uni-erlangen.de/abteilungen/medien/lorenz/phonetics_ba09/vowelchart
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Vowel Theories - Sail
Striking resemblance between position of vowels in CV quadrilateral (based on auditory judgements) whose axis are high-low and front-back, and position in a ...
sail.usc.edu/~lgoldste/General_Phonetics/Vowels/Vowel_Theories.html
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IPA Vowel Symbols - Speech Resource Pages - Macquarie University
Aug 1, 2009 ... In this table the "Vowel quadrilateral" roughly represents tongue position, with positions to the left of the diagram representing vowels produced ...
clas.mq.edu.au/phonetics/transcription/ipa/ipa_vowel.html
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How do you draw a vowel quadrilateral diagram for the vowel "A ...
Phoneticians and phonologists represent vowels on a diagram called the 'Vowel quadrilateral', a shape which simplifies the actual physical positions ...
uk.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20101103045455AAqwzhb
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IPA Cardinal Vowels - KeyTap
Jun 1, 2012 ... Here are five IPA Vowel quadrilaterals compared: three IPA French Quadrilaterals , and two IPA English Quadrilaterals. Actually one is a ...
www.keytap.com/french/IPA.aspx
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Icelandic: Vowel Quadrilateral - WordReference Forums
Hello, you guys. How are you all doing? Alright, so I've been looking all over the internet for an Icelandic vowel diagram for ages; yek.me.uk is ...
forum.wordreference.com/showthread.php?t=2429884
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IPA - Universität Bielefeld
the International Phonetic Association (IPA); the International Phonetic Alphabet ( IPA); the consonant chart and kinds of consonant; the Vowel quadrilateral and ...
www.uni-bielefeld.de/lili/personen/vgramley/teaching/HTHS/IPA.html
Search results for "Vowel quadrilateral"
Google: approx. 44.300
Vowel quadrilateral in science
Vowels - York University
VOWELS. Front. Central. Back. Close. i. y. È. Ë. ¨ u. IY. U. Close-mid. e P. e. Þ. Ø o. ´. Open-mid. E {. ‰. P. ø O. Open vowels are articulated with the ...
IPA Vowel Symbols - Speech Resource Pages - Macquarie University
Aug 1, 2009 ... Macquarie University, Sydney Faculty of Human Sciences ... In this table the "Vowel quadrilateral" roughly represents tongue position, with ...
Developing a physiological equivalent of the Cantonese vowel ...
Jul 25, 2011... a physiological equivalent of the Cantonese Vowel quadrilateral using ... Publisher, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) ...
[PDF]A note on the vowel quadrilateral - Cambridge Journals - Cambridge ...
decisions made at that convention. A note on the Vowel quadrilateral I. MICHAEL ASHBY. Department of Phonetics, University College London, London WC1E ...
Phonetics Resources (with Domtab) - University of Washington
Apr 21, 2008 ... British and American Vowels The vowel sounds and IPA symbols of American English in the Vowel quadrilateral; then a contrasting set of ...
IPA Cardinal Vowels - KeyTap
Jun 1, 2012 ... Here are five IPA Vowel quadrilaterals compared: three IPA French Quadrilaterals .... Quadrilateral and audio samples: University of Victoria IPA ...
Vowel diagram - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Such diagrams are termed vowel trapezia or Vowel quadrilaterals. German phonologists know these as, ... Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 41– 44.
IEEE Xplore - Computer display of vowel quadrilateral with real-time ...
Computer display of Vowel quadrilateral with real-time representation of articulation. Cookies ... Cambridge University, Engineering Department, Cambridge, UK ...
IEEE Xplore - Computer display of vowel quadrilateral with real-time ...
The classical characterisation of vowel sounds used by phoneticians is the vowel ... computer analysis and display which represents the Vowel quadrilateral is described. ... Cambridge University, Engineering Department, Cambridge, UK ...
Books on the term Vowel quadrilateral
Speech Science Primer: Physiology, Acoustics, And Perception of Speech
Speech Science Primer: Physiology, Acoustics, And Perception of Speech
2007
Figure 6.22 depicts the traditional Vowel quadrilateral (sometimes called the vowel triangle, although it has four sides). The basic parameters of this quadrilateral are tongue height (high to low) and tongue advancement (front to back) .
Articulation and Phonology Resource Guide for School-age Children ...
Articulation and Phonology Resource Guide for School-age Children ...
Ann Smit, 2004
Broad Transcription of Vowels English vowels are usually described in terms of their location on the Vowel quadrilateral, shown in Figure 1-1. In this figure the vertical dimension of the quadrilateral represents the vowel height in terms of ...
A Manual of English Phonetics and Phonology: Twelve Lessons with ...
A Manual of English Phonetics and Phonology: Twelve Lessons with ...
Paul Skandera, Peter Burleigh, 2011
Depending on the particular language under description, the vowel symbols are superimposed on the space within a triangle or a quadrilateral. Such a vowel chart, or vowel diagram, was first devised by Daniel Jones. It reflects roughly the ...
Terminology of Communication Disorders: Speech-language-hearing
Terminology of Communication Disorders: Speech-language-hearing
Lucille Nicolosi, Elizabeth Harryman, Janet Kresheck, 2004
Vowel sound produced with added muscle tension, which is long in duration; authorities differ as to which vowels belong to this ... processes. vowel neutralization See under substitution, under phonological processes. Vowel quadrilateral ...
Linguistics: An Introduction
Linguistics: An Introduction
Andrew Radford, Martin Atkinson, David Britain, 2009
... The Vowel quadrilateral (including only short vowels) 37 The Vowel quadrilateral (with long vowels) 38 The Vowel quadrilateral, including mid-closed vowels 38 The diphthongs of English 39 The Vowel quadrilateral, including central vowels ...
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Blog posts on the term
Vowel quadrilateral
The naturalness of British vowels | speech talk
speech talk - thoughts on English, speech & language
englishspeechservices.com/blog/the-naturalness-of-british-vowels/
ScholarWorks@GVSU - Student Scholars Day: Familial Similarities in the Acoustic Vowel Quadrilateral
This poster will report on the similarities of vowel production in an extended family unit. Seven members of a family from west Michigan produced the four corner vowels (beet, bat, boot, bot) into an acoustic analysis software package. The resulting first and second formants for each vowel were recorded and plotted on a F1xF2 graph. The plots for each vowel were connected forming quadrilaterals for each family member. Many of the quadrilateral plots were the same across family members or within one SD of the mean. The Vowel quadrilateral plots for the family members were all distinctly different from plots from persons outside the family, such as other class members.
scholarworks.gvsu.edu/ssd/2012/posters/144/
Fun with Phonemes: Vowel Quadrilateral
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funphonemes.blogspot.com/2009/02/vowel-quadrilateral.html
How to Make a Vowel Quadrilateral in Excel | World Wide Articles
wwa.fx1991.com/2012/09/how-to-make-a-vowel-quadrilateral-in-excel
How do you draw a vowel quadrilateral diagram for the vowel “A” and/or “I” ? | HugzMe
by PhotoJonny Question by Mr Z: How do you draw a Vowel quadrilateral diagram for the vowel “A” and/or “I” ? See answers below. Add your own as well
www.hugzme.com/2012/05/how-do-you-draw-a-vowel-quadrilateral-diagram-for-the-vowel-a-andor-i/
KT SpeechBlog
SPEAKING WITH SKILL, 2ND EDITION, 1ST DRAFT Now that Speaking with Skill is readily available worldwide just in time for holiday gift-giving, I could allow a sigh of relief to flow egressively from my alveolar sacs; were it not for the fact that I managed to distribute liberally—throughout its pages—words, sentences and sometimes entire paragraphs that need to be changed. Others might call these “errors” or “omissions” or “stupidities,” and some reviewer undoubtedly will, but I consider the opportunity to fix them an ongoing retirement “hobby.
ktspeechblog.blogspot.com/2012/12/speaking-with-skill-2-nd-edition-1-st.html
Here Are the Affidavits & Study Verisign Used In Support Of Its Objection To .Cam: | TheDomains.com
A couple of weeks ago we told you we were hearing that Verisign had filed objections to new gTLD strings that they believe are confusing to . com or .
www.thedomains.com/2013/03/26/here-are-the-affidavits-study-verisign-used-in-support-of-its-objection-to-cam/
Lizz's EFL pronunciation teaching blog: Tools of the trade - IPA part 2.
So, we've had a quick tour of the consonants, now let's focus on the vowels. This is the Vowel quadrilateral found on the IPA.
lizzlovesaccents.blogspot.com/2013/03/tools-of-trade-ipa-part-2.html
Winter Pronunciation Camp* Reflections Week 2 (Part 1) | The Breathy Vowel
ELT, Applied Linguistics, Korean.
breathyvowel.wordpress.com/2013/01/14/winter-pronunciation-camp-reflections-week-2-part-1/
Talk It Up: Sounds in Syllables
Hello! The next step in artic therapy is to work on the sound in syllables. I base this portion of therapy on the Vowel quadrilateral.
talkituptherapy.blogspot.com/2012/01/sounds-in-syllables.html
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