Vietnam War, 1961-1975
The Vietnam War (Vietnamese: Chiến tranh Việt Nam, in Vietnam also known as the American War, Vietnamese: Chiến tranh Mỹ), also known as the Second Indochina War, was a Cold War-era proxy war that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from December 1956 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam—supported by the Soviet Union, China and other communist allies—and the government of South Vietnam—supported by the United States and other anti-communist countries. The Viet Cong (also known as the National Liberation Front, or NLF), a lightly armed South Vietnamese communist common front directed by the North, fought a guerrilla war against anti-communist forces in the region. The People's Army of Vietnam (a.k.a. the North Vietnamese Army) engaged in a more conventional war, at times committing large units into battle. As the war wore on, the part of the Viet Cong in the fighting decreased as the role of the NVA grew. U.S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery, and airstrikes. In the course of the war, the U.S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam, and over time the North Vietnamese airspace became the most heavily defended airspace of any in the world.
The U.S. government viewed American involvement in the war as a way to prevent a Communist takeover of South Vietnam. This was part of a wider containment strategy, with the stated aim of stopping the spread of communism. According to the U.S. domino theory, if one state went Communist, other states in the region would follow, and U.S. policy thus held that accommodation to the spread of Communist rule across all of Vietnam was unacceptable. The North Vietnamese government and the Viet Cong were fighting to reunify Vietnam under communist rule. They viewed the conflict as a colonial war, fought initially against forces from France and then America, as France was backed by the U.S., and later against South Vietnam, which it regarded as a U.S. puppet state. Beginning in 1950, American military advisors arrived in what was then French Indochina. U.S. involvement escalated in the early 1960s, with troop levels tripling in 1961 and again in 1962. U.S. involvement escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U.S. destroyer clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft, which was followed by the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which gave the U.S. president authorization to increase U.S. military presence. Regular U.S. combat units were deployed beginning in 1965. Operations crossed international borders: bordering areas of Laos and Cambodia were heavily bombed by U.S. forces as American involvement in the war peaked in 1968, the same year that the Communist side launched the Tet Offensive. The Tet Offensive failed in its goal of overthrowing the South Vietnamese government but became the turning point in the war, as it showed that South Vietnam was unable to fend for itself against the North, despite many years of massive U.S. military aid. As the point of U.S. victory was indeterminate, U.S. ground forces were gradually withdrawn as part of a policy known as Vietnamization, which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the Communists to the South Vietnamese themselves. Despite the Paris Peace Accord, which was signed by all parties in January 1973, the fighting continued.
In the U.S. and the Western world, a large anti-Vietnam War movement developed. This movement was both part of a larger Counterculture of the 1960s and also fed into it.
Direct U.S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.S. Congress. The capture of Saigon at the hands of the North Vietnamese Army in April 1975 marked the end of the war, and North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities (see Vietnam War casualties). Estimates of the number of Vietnamese service members and civilians killed vary from 800,000 to 3.1 million. Some 200,000–300,000 Cambodians, 20,000–200,000 Laotians, and 58,220 U.S. service members also died in the conflict.

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Vietnam War (1961-1975)
Answering press questions after addressing a Howard University audience on 2 March 1965, King asserted that the war in Vietnam was ''accomplishing ...
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Bibliography of the Vietnam War - Clemson University
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Vietnam War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Vietnam War (Vietnamese: Chiến tranh Việt Nam) was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November ...
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The Vietnam War, 1961-1975 | Information Center | Education.com
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Books on the term Vietnam War, 1961-1975
The Eyewitness history of the Vietnam war, 1961-1975
The Eyewitness history of the Vietnam war, 1961-1975
George Esper, Associated Press, 1983
A wide-ranging history of American involvement in Vietnam documents the military campaigns, battles, and turmoil of the war from the perspectives of the soldiers, officers, pilots, nurses, medics, and journalists who experienced it
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Columbia History of the Vietnam War
Columbia History of the Vietnam War
David L. Anderson, 2011
Vietnam War, 1961–1975. 2. Vietnam War, 1961–1975—Infl uence. 3. Vietnam War, 1961–1975—Social aspects. 4. Vietnam War, 1961–1975—Political aspects —United States. I. Anderson, David L., 1946– II. Title: Columbia history of the ...
Captain Bullen's War: The Vietnam War Diary of Captain John Bullen
Captain Bullen's War: The Vietnam War Diary of Captain John Bullen
John Bullen, Paul Ham, 2010
Vietnam War, 1961–1975—Veterans—Australia—Biography. Vietnam War, 1961–1975—Personal narratives, Australian. Vietnam War, 1961–1975—Participation , Australian. Vietnam War, 1961–1975—Campaigns—Vietnam—Nui Dat.
Vietnam: The Australian War
Vietnam: The Australian War
Paul Ham, 2010
Paul Ham. Ham, Paul. Vietnam: the Australian war / Paul Ham. ISBN: 978 0 7322 8780 1 (pbk.) ISBN: 978 0 7322 9157 0 (ePub) Includes index. Bibliography. Vietnam War, Vietnam War, Vietnam War, Vietnam War, Vietnam War, 1961-1975 .
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Vietnam War, 1961-1975
Knoxville in the Vietnam Era (Images of America: Tennessee) ebook downloads - Amital
Knoxville in the Vietnam Era (Images of America: Tennessee) book download Ed Hooper Download Knoxville in the Vietnam Era (Images of America: Tennessee) Photos of the East Tennessee soldier were kept. . This heavily illustrated volume examines Knoxville and eastern Tennessee from the years 1961 through 1975,. Historian Ed Hooper...
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Law and the 1960s • The Judge Ben C. Green Law Library • Case Western Reserve University School of Law
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Red Bull Rising: Eight Ways to Share Your Military Story, Part II
Editor's note: Much of the following appeared in my classroom materials for an April 2013 military-writing workshop. Fellow writer and journalist Doug Bradley and I presented workshops regarding online-journaling and military-blogging.
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