The P-Celtic/Q-Celtic hypothesis is a categorization for the Celtic languages. The theory links Gaulish with Brythonic as P-Celtic and links Goidelic with Celtiberian as Q-Celtic. The difference between P and Q languages is the treatment of Proto-Celtic *kw, which became *p in the P-Celtic languages but *k in Goidelic. For example the word for head is pen in Brythonic languages but ceann in Goidelic; the word for son is mab (earlier map) in Brythonic but mac in Goidelic – maqq on the Primitive Irish Ogham inscriptions.
P-Celtic incorporates the following:
- Gallic
- Pritennic
- Brythonic (British)
West Brythonic
Old Welsh
Middle Welsh
Southwestern Brythonic
Old Breton
Middle Breton
Old Cornish
Middle Cornish
Q-Celtic incorporates the following:
- Goidelic
Primitive Irish
Old Irish
Middle Irish
Scottish Gaelic
- Celtiberian languages
Northwestern Hispano-Celtic
The ancient Italic languages had a similar division, with Latino-Faliscan as "Q-Italic" and Osco-Umbrian as "P-Italic".

This is an excerpt from the article Q-Celtic from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.
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The Celts - Ibiblio
The original wave of Celtic immigrants to the British Isles are called the q-Celts and spoke Goidelic. It is not known exactly when this immigration occurred but it ...
Ireland History in Maps - Celtic Language - RootsWeb - Ancestry.com
For the Celtic languages spoken in Great Britain, Ireland, and Brittany ( northwestern France), it is conventional to divide them into two groups: Q-Celtic, ...
Celtic languages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Other scholars (such as Schmidt 1988) distinguish between P-Celtic and Q-Celtic , putting most of the Gaulish and Brythonic languages in the former group and ...
Q-Celtic - Mary Jones
Q-Celtic formerly "Goidelic". A term designating those languages of the Celtic branch which include Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx, and the extinct Celtiberian of ...
Last word on Celtic Ps and Qs - The Phrase Finder
Mar 10, 2005 ... There are two surviving dialects of the Celtic language. Linguists label them as Q -Celtic and P-Celtic. Irish, Scottish and Manx are Q-Celtic and ...
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By the 4th century BC people across Britain spoke Celtic languages. These are commonly known as Q-Celtic or Goidelic languages and P-Celtic or Brythonic ...
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Mac, mac, mac, mab, mab, mab- all mean 'son', inis, innis, hinjey, enez, ynys, enys - all mean 'island.' Anyone can see the similarities within these two cognate  ...
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Q'Celtic Border Collies, Sara Olechowska, mailto:QCeltic@psy.pl.
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Q-Celtic in science
Celtic languages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Other scholars (such as Schmidt 1988) distinguish between P-Celtic and Q-Celtic , putting most of the Gaulish and Brythonic ..... Cambridge University Press.
[PDF]Category Fusion. Prepositional Constructions in Q-Celtic Languages ...
Prepositional Constructions in Q-Celtic Languages. Piotr Stalmaszczyk (University of Łódź). One of the characteristic (and archaic) features of the Celtic ...
Mind Your P's and Q's: Revisiting the Insular Celtic hypothesis ...
In this paper, the labels P-Celtic and Q- Carpenter 9 of 61 Celtic will not be widely used and will only occur ...... Oxford (Clarendon): Oxford University Press.
[PDF]Celtic - University of Edinburgh
belonging to the group of so-called Q-Celtic languages, and are more distantly related to the. P-Celtic languages of Welsh, Breton and Cornish. Each of the ...
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Scots Language Centre - - Q-Celtic Languages
Q-Celtic Irish Gaelic (Gaeilge) The earliest texts in Old Irish consist either of ... Gaelic-designated areas. www.ucd.ie/bnag Bord na Gaeilge at the University of ...
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Ranked among the best universities in Canada, StFX delivers top-notch ... The means by which the Celtic languages became established in Europe, and the ... ( "Q-Celtic") and Brythonic ("P-Celtic"), because of a phonetic divergence that is ...
Celtic Languages - The Canadian Encyclopedia
Insular Q-Celtic consists of Scottish Gaelic, Irish Gaelic and Manx Gaelic, all 3 ... itself by the establishment of a chair of Celtic studies at the University of Ottawa; ...
Celtic languages: Information from Answers.com
The Celtic languages are frequently classified into Q-Celtic and p-Celtic, ... The Q-Celtic languages are Celtiberian and Gaelic. ..... Cambridge University Press.
Celtic background
Knowledge of the Celts in pre-history is derived from (i) references to them in the works of classical authors (the earliest is .... It falls into two groups, P-Celtic or Brythonic and Q-Celtic or Goedelic. .... Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Books on the term Q-Celtic
The Edinburgh History of Scottish Literature: From Columba ...
The Edinburgh History of Scottish Literature: From Columba ...
Ian Brown, 2007
The best-known linguistic test for this distinction is the way in which Celtic speakers dealt with the *q-sound which Proto-Celtic had inherited from its Indo- European past. In what came to be the Gaelic languages, the *q was retained and ...
The Celts: A Very Short Introduction
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Barry Cunliffe, 2003
The Insular Celtic languages were, and in some places still are, spoken in Great Britain, Ireland, and Brittany. As we have seen above, it has been conventional to divide them into two groups, Q-Celtic or Goidelic and P-Celtic or Brythonic.
The Celtic Languages
The Celtic Languages
Martin Ball, Nicole Muller, 2012
On the Position of P and Q Celtic in the Historical Development of the Celtic Languages In the historical developmentoftheCeltic languages CommonGoidelic (CGoid.) and Common Brythonic (CBryth.) occupy an intermediate position: the ...
Celtic Knotwork Designs
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Sheila Sturrock, 1997
Craftspersons who have copied Celtic knotwork designs for their own work know that the construction process is not obvious in the finished design. The secret to understanding the designs lies in the sequence of superimposed drawings that make up the finished knot. Sturrock shows the step-by-step process, starting with simple shapes plotted on a dot...
The Celtic Languages
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Donald MacAulay, 1992
2.0 EXTERNAL HISTORY OF THE LANGUAGE The Irish language (Gaeilge) is. together with Scottish Gaelic and Manx, a member of the Q-Celtic grouping of Insular Celtic. Although it has existed in Ireland from at least the early centuries of  ...
The Celtic Golden Dawn: An Original & Complete Curriculum of Druidical Study
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John Michael Greer, 2013
John Michael Greer (Western Maryland) has been a student of occult traditions and the unexplained for more than thirty years. A Freemason, a student of geomancy and sacred geometry, and a widely read blogger, he is also the author of numerous books, including Monsters, The New Encyclopedia of the Occult and Secrets of the Lost Symbol, and currently...
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Minding P's and Q's: A new tongue The Irish who were settled in Ireland before the Celts arrived spoke a non-Indo-European language. Consequently the Irish were still chatting away to each other in a language that had not been influenced  ...
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The latest from Paulist Press's extraordinary series on world spiritual traditions and classics--one that has brought great theologians and mystics to the attention of scholars and general readers alike, this generous volume includes writings by and about saints Patrick, Brigit, and Brendan, as well as less familiar poems, liturgies, narrative...
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