Prudent Avoidance Principle
Prudent avoidance is a precautionary principle in risk management, stating that reasonable efforts to minimise potential risks should be taken when the actual magnitude of the risks is unknown. The principle was proposed by Prof. Granger Morgan of Carnegie Mellon University in 1989 in the context of electromagnetic radiation safety (in particular, fields produced by power lines).
A report for the Office of Technology Assessment of the US Congress described prudent avoidance of power line fields as:
"looking systematically for strategies which can keep people out of 60 Hz fields arising from all sources but only adopt those which look to be "prudent" investments given their cost and our current level of scientific understanding about possible risks."
The principle has been adopted in a number of countries, for example Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Australia and New Zealand. While not adopted by any regulatory body at the national level in the USA, the principle has been adopted in some form by a number of local regulatory bodies, for example the public utility commissions in California, Colorado, Connecticut and Hawaii. The Colorado Public Commission states:
"The utility shall include the concept of prudent avoidance with respect to planning, siting, construction, and operation of transmission facilities. Prudent avoidance shall mean the striking of a reasonable balance between the potential health effects of exposure to magnetic fields and the cost of impacts of mitigation of such exposure, by taking steps to reduce the exposure at reasonable or modest cost. Such steps might include, but are not limited to 1) design alternatives considering the spatial arrangement of phasing of conductors; 2) routing lines to limit exposures to areas of concentrated population and group facilities such as schools and hospitals; 3) installing higher structures; 4) widening right of way corridors; and 5) burial of lines."
The prudent avoidance principle is seen as a better alternative than other proposed approaches to risk management such as ALARA because it makes reasonable efforts to reduce possible risk without creating a specific numeric standard which is not supported by strong scientific evidence.

This is an excerpt from the article Prudent Avoidance Principle from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.
The article Prudent Avoidance Principle at en.wikipedia.org was accessed 96 times in the last 30 days. (as of: 07/08/2013)
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Prudent avoidance principle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Prudent avoidance is a precautionary principle in risk management, stating that reasonable efforts to minimise potential risks should be taken when the actual ...
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the precautionary principle and emf - World Health Organization
principle policy. I will define and discuss prudent avoidance and other unique features of applications of the precautionary principle to EMF. I will conclude.
www.who.int/peh-emf/meetings/southkorea/Leeka_Kheifets_principle_.pdf
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prudent avoidance guidelines published - EMR Safety Network ...
It is not the authors' intention to provide precise instructions for the application of prudent avoidance. But, rather, to provide a series of guiding principles, which ...
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The Role of Evidence in Risk Characterization: Making Sense of ... - Google Books Result
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prudent avoidance principle - OneLook Dictionary Search
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Does Hydro One practice "prudent avoidance" and/or follow the ...
Related Questions. Can one organization or web site host multiple jurisdictions or federations? - Yes. DACS makes it easy for a single web server to be ...
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Responsible Nanobiotechnology: Philosophy and Ethics - Google Books Result
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prudent - English-Spanish Dictionary…
prudent - Translation to Spanish, pronunciation, and forum discussions ... Principal Translations: prudent adj (safe, conservative) prudente adj: prudent adj
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Prudent Avoidance Principle in science
Prudent avoidance principle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Prudent avoidance is a precautionary principle in risk management, stating that ... Granger Morgan of Carnegie Mellon University in 1989 in the context of ...
[PDF]the precautionary principle and emf - World Health Organization
The precautionary principle, a recommendation to consider .... Carnegie Mellon University. In a 1989 ... The report defined prudent avoidance as “taking steps to.
prudent avoidance guidelines published - EMR Safety Network ...
REGARDING PRUDENT AVOIDANCE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD ... But, rather, to provide a series of guiding principles, which may be applied to ...
Books on the term Prudent Avoidance Principle
The Role of Evidence in Risk Characterization: Making Sense of ...
The Role of Evidence in Risk Characterization: Making Sense of ...
Peter M. Wiedemann, Holger Schütz, 2008
The principle was proposed in\the context of electromagnetic radiation safety (in particular, fields produced by, power lines). A report for the Office of Technology Assessment of the US Congress [36] described prudent avoidance of 198 75 ...
Environmental Decision-making: The Roles of Scientists, Engineers, ...
Environmental Decision-making: The Roles of Scientists, Engineers, ...
Ronnie Harding, 1998
The case study highlights a situation which, because of the uncertainty and potential for significant harm, necessitates "prudent avoidance" and the application of the precautionary principle (see 8. 10). Prudent avoidance and the application of ...
Responsible Nanobiotechnology: Philosophy and Ethics
Responsible Nanobiotechnology: Philosophy and Ethics
Armin Grunwald, 2012
The application of the precautionary principle is part of the risk management process when scientific uncertainty does not allow a full understanding of the risk itself. 6.3.2.2 The Prudent Avoidance Approach The Prudent Avoidance Principle  ...
Biological and Medical Aspects of Electromagnetic Fields
Biological and Medical Aspects of Electromagnetic Fields
Frank S. Barnes, Ben Greenebaum, 2010
Several examples are presented below (Table 8.3). Prudent avoidance: Prudent avoidance, a version of the Precautionary Principle (although not specifically identified as such), was developed for power-frequency EMF. It is defined as taking ...
Principles of Risk Analysis: Decision Making Under Uncertainty
Principles of Risk Analysis: Decision Making Under Uncertainty
Charles E. Yoe, 2012
It.is.prudent.avoidance..The.precau- tionary.principle.is.broadly.based.on.the. notion.that.human.and.ecological.health.are. irreplaceable.human.goods..Their. protection.should.be.treated.as.the.paramount.con- ...
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Blog posts on the term
Prudent Avoidance Principle
Rethinking Trust Law Reform: How Prudent is Modern Prudent Investor Doctrine? | The Legal Workshop
Over the last two decades, the Restatement (Third) of Trusts, the Uniform Prudent Investor Act, and the Uniform Trust Code—all influenced by modern portfolio
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Borepatch: The "Precautionary Principle" is a tool for Luddites
Or Luddite Tools, as the case may be: An Ontario teachers' union is calling for an end to new Wi-Fi setups in the province's 1,400-plus Catholic schools. The Ontario English Catholic Teacher's Association says computers in all new schools should be hardwired instead of setting up wireless networks.
borepatch.blogspot.com/2012/02/precautionary-principle-is-tool-for.html
Measuring the Economic Costs of Electricity Outages | Energy Economics Exchange
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Announced changes to the Australian General Anti-Avoidance Rule (GAAR) » Corrs Chambers Westgarth
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Teachers union in Ontario takes the ‘better safe than sorry’ approach to WiFi | The Daily Caller
Teachers union in Ontario takes the 'better safe than sorry' approach to WiFi | Statement released earlier this week targets wireless devices
dailycaller.com/2012/02/14/teachers-union-in-ontario-takes-the-better-safe-than-sorry-approach-to-wifi/
Mobile Phone Radiation: Precautionary principle
In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that the precautionary principle could be voluntarily adopted in this case. [77] It follows the recommendations of the European Community for environmental risks.
mobileradiationonman.blogspot.com/2009/03/precautionary-principle.html
VeniceResolution; International Commission for Electromagnetic Safety « Kipnews | Knowledge is power
]]>TweetVeniceResolution Initiated by the International Commission for Electromagnetic Safety,June 6, 2008. As stated in the Benevento Resolution of September 2006, we remain concerned about the effects of human exposure to electromagnetic fields on health.
www.kipnews.org/2012/02/15/veniceresolution-international-commission-for-electromagnetic-safety/
Sci/Why: Thoughts on WiFi, Science and Science Reporting
Posted by Gillian O’ReillyRecently, the Ontario English Catholic Teacher's Association called for an end to new WiFi setups in the province's 1,400-plus Catholic schools, saying computers in new schools should be hardwired instead. The union – which represents 45,000 teachers – cites research by the World Health Organization and said the “safety of this technology has not thoroughly been researched and therefore the precautionary principle and prudent avoidance of exposure should be practised.
sci-why.blogspot.com/2012/02/thoughts-on-wifi-science-and-science.html
North Carolina Law Review | Passive Virtues Versus Aggressive Litigants: The Prudence of Avoiding a Constitutional Decision in Snyder v. Phelps
In his seminal work on the functions of the federal judiciary, Alexander M. Bickel advocated what he called the “passive virtues” of judicial restraint and the avoidance of unnecessary constitutional decision-making.
www.nclawreview.org/2010/03/passive-virtues-versus-aggressive-litigants-the-prudence-of-avoiding-a-constitutional-decision-in-snyder-v-phelps/
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