Pronuclei
A pronucleus (plural: pronuclei) is the nucleus of a sperm or an egg cell during the process of fertilization, after the sperm enters the ovum, but before they fuse. Sperm and egg cells are haploid, meaning they carry half the number of chromosomes. The male and female pronuclei don't fuse, although their genetic material do. Instead, their membranes dissolve, leaving no barriers between the male and female chromosomes. Their chromosomes can then combine and become part of a single diploid nucleus in the resulting embryo, containing a full set of chromosomes.
The appearance of two pronuclei is the first sign of successful fertilization as observed during in vitro fertilisation, and is usually observed 18 hours after insemination or ICSI. The zygote is then termed a two-pronuclear zygote (2PN). Two-pronuclear zygotes transitioning through 1PN or 3PN states tend to develop into poorer-quality embryos than ones who remain 2PN throughout development, and may be significant in embryo selection in IVF.

This is an excerpt from the article Pronuclei from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.
The article Pronuclei at en.wikipedia.org was accessed 169 times in the last 30 days. (as of: 07/07/2013)
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Pronucleus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A pronucleus (plural: Pronuclei) is the nucleus of a sperm or an egg cell during the process of fertilization, after the sperm enters the ovum, but before they fuse.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pronucleus
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pronuclei - definition of pronuclei by the Free Online Dictionary ...
pro·nu·cle·us (pr -n kl - s, -ny -). n. pl. pro·nu·cle·i (-kl - ). The haploid nucleus of a sperm or egg before fusion of the nuclei in fertilization.
www.thefreedictionary.com/pronuclei
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pronuclei - Medical Dictionary - The Free Dictionary
pronucleus /pro·nu·cle·us/ (-noo´kle-us). 1. the precursor of a nucleus. 2. the haploid nucleus occurring after meiosis in a germ cell.
medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/pronuclei
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Pronucleus - Merriam-Webster Online
Definition of pronucleus from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary with audio pronunciations, thesaurus, Word of the Day, and word games.
www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pronucleus
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Approach of the pronuclei - Embryology.ch
The paternal and the maternal Pronuclei move towards each other with the help of microtubules, which begin to be formed immediately after impregnation, i.e., ...
www.embryology.ch/anglais/dbefruchtung/zygote02.html
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pronucleus (biology) -- Encyclopedia Britannica
After its entry into the egg cytoplasm, the spermatozoal nucleus, now called the male pronucleus, begins to swell, and its chromosomal material disperses and ...
www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/478830/pronucleus
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Pronuclei | Define Pronuclei at Dictionary.com
Pronuclei definition, either of the gametic nuclei that unite in fertilization to form the nucleus of the zygote. See more.
dictionary.reference.com/browse/pronuclei
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Male and Female Genomes Associated in a Single Pronucleus in ...
Of the 16 zygotes analyzed, 10 had haploid Pronuclei and 6 were diploid. Four diploid ... the male and female pronucleus follows one of two general patterns ...
www.biolreprod.org/content/52/3/653.full.pdf
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Pronuclei - Scrabble Word Finder
Pronuclei definition, definition of Pronuclei, Anagrams of Pronuclei, words that start with Pronuclei, and words that can be created from Pronuclei.
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Time-course of oocyte activation, pronucleus formation and ...
Hum Reprod. 1994 Sep;9(9):1743-8. Time-course of oocyte activation, pronucleus formation and cleavage in human oocytes fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm ...
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7836530
Search results for "Pronuclei"
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Pronuclei in science
Tulane University - Pronuclear Injection
Pronuclear injection is the most common method used to create transgenic mice. This procedure involves collecting fertilized eggs at the single cell stage.
Production of Transgenic via Pronuclear Injection into fertilised eggs ...
The injection of a DNA solution into the Pronuclei of fertilized eggs is the most common method for making transgenic .... 2012 The University of Queensland ...
Background: Pronuclear transfer (PNT) - Nuffield Council on Bioethics
In 2003, it was reported that a research team at Sun Yat-Sen University in Guangzhou, China experimented with the pronuclear transfer technique in human ...
Pronuclear transfer in human embryos to prevent transmission of ...
Apr 14, 2010 ... Here we show that transfer of Pronuclei between abnormally ..... Ageing and Age- related disease and the Newcastle University Centre for Brain ...
the fine structure of pronuclear development and fusion
From the Department of Zoology, The University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts ... As the Pronuclei encounter one another, the surface of the female ...
[PDF]Mouse Zygotic Pronuclei Autonomously Regulate DNA Synthesis
University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96822. Key Words: Mouse pronuclear replication, DNA origin licensing, delayed sperm injection. Running Head: Mouse ...
[PDF]Three dimensional mathematical modelling of pronuclei migration ...
modelling of Pronuclei migration for the mouse. Sofia Tapani. Department of Mathematical Sciences. Division of Mathematical Statistics. Chalmers University of ...
Pronuclear transfer in human embryos to prevent ... - Nature
Apr 14, 2010 ... Pronuclei were transferred between human zygotes, which developed ... Newcastle University Centre for Brain Ageing and Vitality, Institute for ...
Pronuclear Injection - Moores Cancer Center - UC San Diego
The fusion gene construct is then microinjected into one of the Pronuclei of fertilized mouse eggs, .... Official Web Site of the University of California, San Diego.
Books on the term Pronuclei
Manual of Assisted Reproductive Technologies and Clinical Embryology
Manual of Assisted Reproductive Technologies and Clinical Embryology
2011
The events following entry of the sperm into the oocyte have been addressed in several studies.4-6 The sequence of events resulting in Pronuclei formation are sperm penetration, changes in oocyte membrane potential, oocyte activation ...
Fertilization / : Frank J. Longo.
Fertilization / : Frank J. Longo.
Frank J. Longo, 1997
This edition seeks to provide the reader with a coherent, concise introduction to the subject. An attempt is made to synthesize the explosion of information during the early 1990s about the different phases of fertilization.
Current topics in developmental biology. 46 (1999)
Current topics in developmental biology. 46 (1999)
Roger A. Pedersen, Gerald Schatten, 1999
Although transcriptional activity was higher in the mouse male pronucleus than in the female pronucleus, levels of ... Whether the dissimilar size of the male and female Pronuclei in other species, including humans (Table III), is also due to ...
Gene Expression at the Beginning of Animal Development
Gene Expression at the Beginning of Animal Development
Melvin L. DePamphilis, 2002
While maternal nuclei in both oocytes and 1-cell embryos exhibit this repression, the paternal pronucleus exhibits ... Paternal Pronuclei generally replicate more quickly than maternal Pronuclei (Ferreira and Carmo-Fonseca, 1997; Aoki and ...
Knobil and Neill&s physiology of reproduction. 1
Knobil and Neill&s physiology of reproduction. 1
Ernst Knobil, Jimmy D. Neill, 2006
The decrease in MAPK UCtivity and formation of Pronuclei are calcium dependent and require a greater number of Ca2+ ... The Pronuclei are far from merely a passive staging area for the two parental genomes prior to assembling the zygotic ...
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Pronuclei
File:Mouse zygote pronuclei 01.jpg - Embryology
php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=File:Mouse_zygote_pronuclei_01.jpg
THE MEASUREMENT OF FERRET PRONUCLEI | earticles good biz
earticlesbiz.info/2013/05/10/the-measurement-of-ferret-pronuclei/
pronuclei | Tratudien.vn - Tra từ điển Anh Việt - Việt Anh - Miễn phí - Nhanh nhất!
tratudien.vn/pronuclei.html
whgatt: Telomere lengths in human pronuclei, oocytes and spermatozoa.
llssg.blogspot.com/2013/03/telomere-lengths-in-human-pronuclei.html
Cytoplasm Mediates Both Development and Oxidation-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death: RESULTS(3) | Government programs in medicine
Posted on June 21, 2013 by Bin.
acutelogic.com/cytoplasm-mediates-both-development-and-oxidation-induced-apoptotic-cell-death-results3.html
Abnormally Fertilised Embryos In Ivf Biology Essay
Normal fertilisation is characterised by the visualisation of two distinct Pronuclei (2PN) 16-20 hours after conventional insemination or ...
www.ukessays.com/essays/biology/abnormally-fertilised-embryos-in-ivf-biology-essay.php
nostalgie de la boue: La Nomenklatur / Stigma Pronuclei - 1986-1988 / Dervishes Of The Disgust
Cassette, C60 Label : Les Nouvelles Propagandes, France, 1992 Rip provided by MercyKing On that split tape, La Nomenklatur side, "1986-1988", is a follow-up to the "Un Recueil De La Nomenklatur" CD. It collects unedited & compilation tracks.
nostalgie-de-la-boue.blogspot.com/2010/11/la-nomenklatur-stigma-pronuclei-1986.html
Integrity rate of pronuclei after cryopreservation of pronuclear-zygotes as a criteria for subsequent embryo development and pregnancy
humrep.oxfordjournals.org/content/23/4/819.abstract
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