Notothenioid
The Antarctic icefish belong to the perciform suborder Notothenioidei and are the largely endemic, dominant fish taxa in the cold continental shelf waters surrounding Antarctica. At present, the suborder includes eight families with 43 genera and 122 species. Although the Southern Ocean is relatively well sampled, new species of notothenioids are still being described.
The majority of notothenioids live at seawater temperatures between –2°C and 4°C, but some subpolar species inhabit waters that may be as warm as 10°C around New Zealand and South America. Seawater temperatures below the freezing point of fresh water (0°C) are possible, because dissolved salts lower the freezing point of a solution in a colligative manner. Notothenioids have a depth range of about 1500 m.
The notothenioids all lack a swimbladder, and the majority of species are therefore benthic or demersal in nature. However, a depth-related diversification has given rise to some species attaining increased buoyancy, using lipid deposits in tissues and reduced ossification of bony structures. Reduced ossification of the skeleton in the notothenioids changes their weight and henceforth has created a sort of neutral balance in the water, where the notothenioid neither sinks nor floats, and can thus adjust depth easier.
Notothenioids have evolved a variety of interesting physiological and biochemical adaptations that either permit survival in, or are possible only because of, the generally cold, stable seawater temperatures of the Southern Ocean. Many notothenioid fish are able to survive in the freezing, ice-laden waters of the Southern Ocean because of the presence of an antifreeze glycoprotein in blood and body fluids. Although many of the Antarctic species have antifreeze proteins in their body fluids, not all of them do. Some subpolar species either produce no or very little antifreeze, and antifreeze concentrations in some species are very low in young, larval fish.
While the majority of animal species have up to 45% of hemoglobin (or other oxygen-binding and oxygen-transporting pigments) in their blood, the notothenioids of the family Channichthyidae have only 1%. They can still flourish in part because of the high oxygen content of the cold waters of the Southern Ocean and in part because oxygen is absorbed and distributed directly by the plasma. These fish must expend twice as much energy in cardiac output per second than the notothenioids with higher hemoglobin concentration. At a cold temperature, oxygen solubility is greatly increased.
The notothenioids are a relatively rare example of a marine fish species flock.
Comparing the genomes of Notothenioidei, which lack red blood cells, to close relatives, such as the Antarctic rockcod, has revealed genes needed to make these blood cells.

This is an excerpt from the article Notothenioid from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.
The article Notothenioid at en.wikipedia.org was accessed 11 times in the last 30 days. (as of: 07/13/2013)
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Antarctic Notothenioid - A/F Protein Inc.
A/F Protein Inc. - A Biotechnology Company ... (Trematomus nicolai) Trematomus nicolai is named after the zoologist, Nicolai Hanson, a member of the 1899 Borchgrevink ...
www.afprotein.com/noto.htm
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Notothenioidei - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Notothenioids all lack a swimbladder, and the majority of species are therefore benthic or demersal in nature. However, a depth-related diversification has ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Notothenioidei
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Molecular ecophysiology of Antarctic notothenioid fishes
Dec 29, 2007 ... The Notothenioid fishes of the Southern Ocean surrounding Antarctica are remarkable examples of organismal adaptation to extreme cold.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2443173/
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Origins: Antarctica: Ideas: Antifreeze Fish (1) | Exploratorium
Meet the Notothenioids, a group of more than 120 marine fish species, most of which are native to Antarctic waters. Antarctic Notothenioids have remarkable ...
www.exploratorium.edu/origins/antarctica/ideas/fish.html
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Convergent evolution of antifreeze glycoproteins in Antarctic ...
Apr 15, 1997 ... Notothenioid AFGPs are encoded by a large gene family, and each member gene encodes a large polyprotein precursor containing many ...
www.pnas.org/content/94/8/3817.full
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Evolution of antifreeze glycoprotein gene from a trypsinogen gene in ...
The small sequence divergence (4–7%) between Notothenioid AFGP and ... The Notothenioid trypsinogen to AFGP conversion is the first clear example of how ...
www.pnas.org/content/94/8/3811.full
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On the Origin and Trigger of the Notothenioid Adaptive Radiation
Apr 18, 2011 ... Antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) have been proposed as putative key innovation for the adaptive radiation of Notothenioid fishes in the ...
www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0018911
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An updated species list for notothenioid fish - Ohio University ...
Arch. Fish. Mar. Res. 48(1), 2000, 11–20. 0944-1921/2000/48/1-11/12.00$/0. Archive of Fishery and Marine Research. An updated species list for Notothenioid ...
www.oucom.ohiou.edu/dbms-eastman/articles/noto.pdf
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Evolution and Diversification of Antarctic Notothenioid Fishes
About one hundred species of Notothenioids dominate a modern fauna of over 200 species of bottom fishes. This highly endemic perciform suborder is not ...
icb.oxfordjournals.org/content/31/1/93.abstract
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Phylogenetic investigations of Antarctic notothenioid fishes ...
critical areas of the Notothenioid phylogeny that are unresolved in both ... molecular phylogenetic analyses of Notothenioids using partial mtDNA 12S and 16S ...
www.yale-university.org/eeb/near/20.pdf
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Notothenioid in science
Molecular ecophysiology of Antarctic notothenioid fishes
Molecular ecophysiology of Antarctic Notothenioid fishes. C.-H Christina Cheng1* and; H William Detrich III2. 1Department of Animal Biology, University of ...
[PDF]An updated species list for notothenioid fish - Ohio University ...
2) University of New England/Westbrook College Campus, Portland, Maine, ... Since publication of Fishes of the Southern Ocean in 1990, 11 new Notothenioid.
Evolution of antifreeze glycoprotein gene from a trypsinogen gene in ...
The Notothenioid trypsinogen to AFGP conversion is the first clear example of how an old protein gene ..... C. Ladd Prosser, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.
Transcriptomics and Comparative Analysis of Three Antarctic ...
Affiliation: College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seongbuk-gu, ... For the past 10 to 13 million years, Antarctic Notothenioid fish have ...
On the Origin and Trigger of the Notothenioid Adaptive Radiation
Apr 18, 2011 ... On the Origin and Trigger of the Notothenioid Adaptive Radiation. Michael Matschiner,. Affiliation: Zoological Institute, University of Basel, Basel ...
[PDF]Phylogenetic investigations of Antarctic notothenioid fishes ...
b Department of Animal Biology, 515 Morrill Hall, University of Illinois, Urbana, ... critical areas of the Notothenioid phylogeny that are unresolved in both ...
Evolution and Diversification of Antarctic Notothenioid Fishes
With relatively few non-Notothenioid fishes in Antarctic waters, Notothenioids fill ecological roles normally occupied by ... Oxford Journals Oxford University Press.
How Antarctica's Shifting Landscape Shaped Notothenioid Evolution
Feb 4, 2013 ... In a recent paper, Yale University researcher Dr. Thomas Near instead suggests that the spread and diversification of the Notothenioids is due ...
Molecular pedomorphism underlies craniofacial skeletal evolution in ...
Molecular pedomorphism underlies craniofacial skeletal evolution in Antarctic Notothenioid fishes. R. Craig Albertson, University of Massachusetts - Amherst
Antifreeze Glycoproteins from Antarctic Notothenioid Fishes Fail to ...
The antarctic Notothenioid fishes avoid freezing through the action of circulating ... Department of Surgery, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14642; ...
Books on the term Notothenioid
The Timetree of Life
The Timetree of Life
S. Blair Hedges, Sudhir Kumar, 2009
Abstract. Notothenioids are a clade of acanthomorph teleosts that represent a rare example of adaptive radiation among marine fishes. The Notothenioid Antarctic Clade is characterized by extensive morphological and ecological variation and ...
Evolution on Planet Earth: Impact of the Physical Environment
Evolution on Planet Earth: Impact of the Physical Environment
Lynn Rothschild, Adrian Lister, 2003
Notothenioid fish also have aglomerular kidneys, which prevent loss of AFGP through filtration into the urine (Eastman, 1993) ... While most protein genes encode one protein molecule per gene, Notothenioid AFGP genes encode a polyprotein ...
Global Change in Multispecies Systems
Global Change in Multispecies Systems
Guy O. Woodward, Ute Jacob, 2012
The lack of competition from other fish groups allowed increased morphological and ecological diversification of Notothenioid fish and expansion into various niches (e.g. Eastman and McCune, 2000; Ekau, 1988; Ptacnik et al., 2010).
Life in Extreme Environments
Life in Extreme Environments
Ricardo Amils, J. J. Cynan Ellis-Evans, Helmut G. Hinghofer-Szalkay, 2007
1996) and give strong support to the monophyly of Antarctic Notothenioids. ... ( 2004), a globins that belong to Notothenioid minor Hbs are included in the '' Embryonic Hb Group'', all a-globin sequences of the major Notothenioid Hbs are  ...
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Notothenioid
An updated species list for notothenioid fish With Comments On Antarctic Species
An updated species list for Notothenioid fish With Comments On Antarctic Species.
www.slashdocs.com/iukyrp/an-updated-species-list-for-notothenioid-fish-with-comments-on-antarctic-species.html
Yale Scientific Magazine | The Nation's Oldest College Science Publication – Fighting the Freeze: How Antarctica’s Shifting Landscape Shaped Notothenioid Evolution
www.yalescientific.org/2013/02/fighting-the-freeze-how-antarcticas-shifting-landscape-shaped-notothenioid-evolution/
Antarctic Ice Fish (Notothenioid) | Biology Online Magazine S100d
Posted on May 29, 2013 by Lindsey | Leave a comment.
pogo.lakesideschool.org/usscience/s100d/2013/05/29/antarctic-ice-fish-notothenioid/
Antarctic Icefish | Life of Sea
Antarctic Icefish - Life of Sea
life-sea.blogspot.com/2013/07/antarctic-icefish.html
JCVI: Characterization of the Intestinal Microbiota of Two Antarctic Notothenioid Fish Species
www.jcvi.org/cms/nc/publications/listing/abstract/article/characterization-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-of-two-antarctic-notothenioid-fish-species/?tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=569
The Ross Sea: A Cold Evolutionary Hot Spot | The Last Ocean
Protecting the Ross Sea, Antarctica.
lastocean.wordpress.com/2012/01/27/the-ross-sea-a-cold-evolutionary-hot-spot/
Fish Phylogenetics: An Adaptive Radiation on Ice
 In February of 2012 we published a set of comparative analyses to investigate the adaptive radiation of Antarctic Notothenioids, a clade of percomorph teleosts. The authors included a graduate student in my lab, Alex Dornburg, a former postdoc, Kristen Kuhn, the venerable master of Antarctic fishes, Joseph T.
fishphylogenetics.blogspot.com/2012/09/an-adaptive-radiation-on-ice.html
Genes hold secret to survival of Antarctic 'antifreeze fish' | Archives | News Bureau | University of Illinois
The News Bureau, part of Public Affairs, generates and coordinates news coverage of the Urbana-Champaign campus
news.illinois.edu/news/08/1016antarcticfish.html
Bloodless Icefish | My Journey to Palmer Station Antarctica
Somewhere, something incredible is waiting to be known. -Carl Sagan (by Amanda Reynolds)
reynoldshypoxia.wordpress.com/2013/01/24/bloodless-icefish/
The influence of environmental temperature on the thermal tolerance of antarctic notothenioid fishes | Biological Sciences Paper
www.bthesis.com/4044.html
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