London ultimatum
World War I reparations were the payments and transfers of property and equipment that Germany was forced to make under the Treaty of Versailles (1919) following its defeat during World War I. Article 231 of the Treaty (the 'war guilt' clause) declared Germany and its allies responsible for all 'loss and damage' suffered by the Allies during the war and provided the basis for reparations.
In January 1921, the total sum due was decided by an Inter-Allied Reparations Commission and was set at 132 billion gold marks. However, the actual amount of reparations that Germany was obliged to pay out was not the 132 billion marks cited in 1921 but rather the 50 billion marks stipulated in the (schedules A 12 billion marks, B 38 billion). The historian Sally Marks stated the 112 billion marks in "C bonds" were entirely chimerical—a device to fool the public into thinking Germany would pay much more. The actual total payout from 1920 to 1931 (when payments were suspended indefinitely) was 20 billion German gold marks, worth about 5 billion US dollars or one billion British pounds. Of this amount, 12.5 billion was cash that came mostly from loans from New York bankers. The rest was goods like coal and chemicals, or from assets like railway equipment. The total amount of reparations was fixed in 1921 on the basis of the German capacity to pay, not on the basis of Allied claims. The highly publicized rhetoric of 1919 about paying for all the damages and all the veterans' benefits was irrelevant to the total, but it did affect how the recipients spent their share. Austria, Hungary, and Turkey were also supposed to pay some reparations but they were so impoverished that they in fact paid very little. Germany was the only country rich enough to pay anything; it owed reparations chiefly to France, Britain, Italy and Belgium; the US received $100 million.
Payments were suspended for one year in June 1931 as proposed by U.S. president Herbert Hoover in the "Hoover Moratorium", and ended at the Lausanne Conference of July 1932. About one-eighth of the initial reparations had been paid. West Germany resumed payments on the debt in the London Debt Agreement of 1953. The final payments were made on 3 October 2010 the twentieth anniversary of German reunification.

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World War I reparations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Following the Second World War, the London Conference (1953) required Germany to resume payment on the money borrowed to pay for reparations. The final ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I_reparations
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Timeline of the Weimar Republic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
18 June 1919 Germany given ultimatum to sign Treaty of Versailles; 21 June ... 5 May 1921 London ultimatum which set the total sum of the war indemnity at ...
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World War I, Document Analysis
Germany in the London ultimatum in May 1921 increased the rate of inflation. Hyperinflation began in 1922, after the Morgan Committee refused to endorse.
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London ultimatum (May 1921) - Biografie Willy Brandt
On 5 May 1921, the British Prime Minister David Lloyd George delivers the „London ultimatum“ to the German ambassador in London. The allies had decided a ...
bio.bwbs.de/bwbs_biografie/London_ultimatum_B744.html
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Londoner Ultimatum
Mai 1921 überreichte der britische Premierminister David Lloyd George dem deutschen Botschafter in London ein auf sechs Tage befristetes Ultimatum der ...
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WWI: Germany invades Belgium and when London's ultimatum to ...
WWI: Germany invades Belgium and when London's ultimatum to Berlin to withdraw expires at midnight, Britain declares war on Germany. SA was involved in ...
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Griddle Music » Europe: London ultimatum vain increasingly isolated
Jan 16, 2014 ... This ultimatum mostly reveals a dual reality: increasing isolation of London on the European stage and a constant pressure of Eurosceptics on ...
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Ramlogan gives London ultimatum | Trinidad Express Newspaper ...
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World War I reparations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Following the Second World War, the London Conference (1953) required .... In addition, helping to restore the university library of Louvain (destroyed by the ...
[PDF]World War I, Document Analysis
Germany in the London ultimatum in May 1921 increased the rate of inflation. Hyperinflation began .... Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Borchardt, Knut ...
[PDF]Chimpanzees play the ultimatum game - Emory University
National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322. Contributed by ... reward division are often studied by means of the ultimatum game, in ...
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Aug 15, 2012... Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, UK ... Humans, but not chimpanzees, punish unfair offers in ultimatum ...
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Nov 29, 2013 ... The government announced the ultimatum on Monday. ... Some university lecturers on Thursday said that the Federal Government .... Council meeting In London · Oduahgate: Jonathan arrives Abuja, confirms receipt of N255 ...
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... series of proposals, counterproposals, attempted settlements and sanctions imposed on Germany, to the London Settlement of Reparations of May 1921. This ...
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Books on the term London ultimatum
Ultimatum
Ultimatum
Simon Kernick, 2013
THE THREAT 8am: an explosion blasts through a cafe in Central London. THE ULTIMATUM Minutes later, a call from an unknown terror group warns that a far greater attack will be launched in 12 hours' time.
Ultimatum
Ultimatum
Simon Kernick, 2013
THE THREAT8am: an explosion blasts through a cafe in Central London.THE ULTIMATUMMinutes later, a call from an unknown terror group warns that a far greater attack will be launched in 12 hours' time.THE PRISONERWilliam Garrett, AKA Fox, is awaiting trial for mass murder. He claims he can name the bombers. But only at a price.THE CLOCK IS TICKI...
A History of Modern Germany: 1840-1945
A History of Modern Germany: 1840-1945
Hajo Holborn, 1982
1840-1945 Hajo Holborn. this affair was not forgotten and strengthened the determination of the Allies of World War II to deal with German war criminals through international courts. . London. Ultimatum. THE PROBLEM OF ...
The Downfall of Money: Germany's Hyperinflation and the Destruction of the Middle Class
The Downfall of Money: Germany's Hyperinflation and the Destruction of the Middle Class
Frederick Taylor, 2013
"Taylor (Dresden) adds to a solid body of work on 20th-century Germany with this chilling account of the human face of hyperinflation in the 1920s Weimar Republic." –Publishers Weekly “A well-organized, fast-moving political narrative…Taylor’s history provides plenty of relevant lessons for today—and not only for Europe.” –Kirkus Reviews ...
The Great Disorder: Politics, Economics, and Society in the ...
The Great Disorder: Politics, Economics, and Society in the ...
Gerald D. Feldman, 1997
The period following the acceptance of the London ultimatum is crucial to any analysis of the precise role played by reparations in causing or promoting the depreciation of the currency as well as in understanding the role of reparations in  ...
Ultimatum 2
Ultimatum 2
Richard Rohmer, 2007
The Secretary suggested that rather than flying direct to Russia, Ross should stop at London and pay a visit to the British Prime Minister. She was on the best of terms with him. And subject to his being in London — not off golfing or on holiday  ...
German Hyperinflation 1922/23: A Law and Economics Approach
German Hyperinflation 1922/23: A Law and Economics Approach
Wolfgang Chr Fischer, 2010
But the 'London ultimatum' in May 192171 demanded reparations in gold or foreign currency to be paid in annual installments of 2 billion gold marks plus 26 percent of the value of Germany's exports. The first payment was paid when due in ...
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London ultimatum
Londoner Konferenz (1921) – Wikipedia
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George Osborne sounds 'reform or decline' ultimatum to EU - UK Politics - UK - The Independent
George Osborne has raised the prospect of Britain leaving the European Union if the 28-nation bloc fails to undertake fundamental reforms to improve competitiveness, create jobs and protect the rights of countries which are not in the single currency.
www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/breakaway-george-osborne-sounds-reform-or-decline-ultimatum-to-eu-9061048.html
George Osborne gives EU ultimatum - Manchester Evening News
The Chancellor said the European Union was no longer
www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/uk-news/george-osborne-gives-eu-ultimatum-6511244
The Bourne Ultimatum (2007) - Goofs - IMDb
The Bourne Ultimatum (2007) Goofs on IMDb: Mistakes, Errors in geography, Spoilers and more...
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London: Das ausgebliebene Ultimatum an Deutschland
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allAfrica.com: Sierra Leone: Coalition Issues 21 Days Ultimatum to London Mining
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