Graphics Kernel System
The Graphical Kernel System (GKS) was the first ISO standard for low-level computer graphics, introduced in 1977. GKS provides a set of drawing features for two-dimensional vector graphics suitable for charting and similar duties. The calls are designed to be portable across different programming languages, graphics devices and hardware, so that applications written to use GKS will be readily portable to many platforms and devices.
GKS was fairly common on computer workstations in the 1980s and early 1990s, and formed the basis of Digital Research's GSX and GEM products; the latter was common on the Atari ST and was occasionally seen on PCs particularly in conjunction with Ventura Publisher. It was little used outside these markets and is essentially obsolete today except insofar as it is the underlying API defining the Computer Graphics Metafile. A descendant of GKS was PHIGS.
A main developer and promoter of the GKS was José Luis Encarnação, formerly director of the Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics (IGD) in Darmstadt, Germany.
GKS has been standardized in the following documents:
- ANSI standard ANSI X3.124 of 1985.
- ISO standard ISO/IEC 7942, first part of 1985, parts 2-4 of 1997-99.
- The language bindings are ISO standard ISO 8651.
- GKS-3D (Graphical Kernel System for Three Dimensions) functional definition is ISO standard ISO 8805, and the corresponding C bindings are ISO 8806.
The functionality of GKS is wrapped up as a data model standard in the STEP standard, section ISO 10303-46.

This is an excerpt from the article Graphics Kernel System from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.
The article Graphics Kernel System at en.wikipedia.org was accessed 7 times in the last 30 days. (as of: 07/19/2013)
Images on Graphics Kernel System
Preview image:
Original:
Search results from Google and Bing
1
>30
1
Graphical Kernel System - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Graphical Kernel System (GKS) was the first ISO standard for low-level computer graphics, introduced in 1977. GKS provides a set of drawing features for ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphical_Kernel_System
2
>30
2
What is GKS (the Graphical Kernel System) - CERN
The Graphical Kernel System (GKS) [2] is a document produced by the International Standards Organization (ISO) which defines a common interface to ...
wwwasdoc.web.cern.ch/wwwasdoc/gks_html3/node6.html
3
>30
3
Graphical kernel system - Dictionary.com - Reference.com
Graphical Kernel System definition. graphics, standard (GKS) The widely recognised standard ANSI X3.124 for graphical input/output. GKS is worked on by the ...
dictionary.reference.com/browse/graphical+kernel+system
4
>30
4
Graphical Kernel System from FOLDOC
Graphical Kernel System. (GKS) The widely recognised standard ANSI X3.124 for graphical input/output. GKS is worked on by the ISO/ IEC ...
foldoc.org/Graphical+Kernel+System
5
>30
5
The new Graphical Kernel System - ScienceDirect
The Graphical Kernel System was first published as an International Standards Organisation standard in 1985. It was formally decided in 1989 that the standard ...
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0010448591900725
6
>30
6
What is GKS (Graphical Kernel System)? - Computer Hope
Computer dictionary definition for what GKS (Graphical Kernel System) means including related links, information, and terms.
www.computerhope.com/jargon/g/gks.htm
7
>30
7
Graphical Kernel System (GKS) - Research Online - University of ...
Sahib, M. A., Graphical Kernel System (GKS), Department of Computing Science, University of Wollongong, ... December 1982 the Graphical Kernel System was.
ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1060&context=compsciwp
8
>30
8
Graphics Kernel System - Encyclopedia - The Free Dictionary
A standard system and language for creating two- and three-dimensional master graphics images on many types of display devices. Abbreviated GKS.
encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Graphics+Kernel+System
9
>30
9
The Graphical Kernel System (GKS) - ACM Digital Library
Since its publication in 1985, the Graphical Kernel System (GKS) has become established as an important standard for computer graphics. Both its output and ...
dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1649192
10
>30
10
GKS-3D: AThree-Dimensional Graphical Kernel System - IEEE Xplore
Graphical Kernel System. Many applications for which the 2D GKS standard is otherwise suitable require the ability to define images using 3D constructs.
ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/38/4056953/04056965.pdf?arnumber=4056965
Search results for "Graphics Kernel System"
Google: approx. 2.660.000
Graphics Kernel System in science
Graphical Kernel System - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Graphical Kernel System (GKS) was the first ISO standard for low-level computer graphics, ... School of Computer Science, University of Birmingham.
[PDF]Graphical Kernel System (GKS) - Research Online - University of ...
1985. Graphical Kernel System (GKS). M. A. Sahib. University of Wollongong. Research Online is the open access institutional repository for the. University of ...
Graphical Kernel System: Definition from Answers.com
graphical kernel system ( ¦grafikl krnl sistm ) ( computer science ) A standard system and language for creating two- and three-dimensional master.
The Concepts Of The Graphical Kernel System (GKS) For ...
The Concepts Of The Graphical Kernel System (GKS) For Standardised Computer ... University of Malaya["lib/metafield:join_corp_creators" not defined] Texas ...
[PDF]An Object-Oriented Graphics Kernel - CiteSeerX
University of British Columbia. Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z1. Abstract ... Traditional graphics kernels, such as Gks-. 3d 10] (the Graphical Kernel System) and.
[PDF]The “Giloi's school” of Computer Graphics - Department of Design
The german roadmap to the Graphical Kernel System(GKS) and to the other ... university. We implemented a variety of interactive systems with innovative GUIs.
A high-level graphics language based on the Graphical Kernel System
The Graphical Kernel System (GKS), an international standard graphics language since 1984, is specified ... a place of mind, The University of British Columbia.
A graphical extension for Pascal based on the Graphical Kernel ...
Abstract: The Graphical Kernel System (GKS), the first international standard in the area of computer graphics, was adopted by the International Standards ...
ncl_gks(3) - Linux man page
GKS - GKS (the Graphical Kernel System) is a set of low-level graphics functions that are standardized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and ...
Formal Specification of Graphics Software - Springer
Theoretical Foundations of Computer Graphics and CAD ... of the ISO standard for computer graphics programming, the Graphical Kernel System (GKS).
Books on the term Graphics Kernel System
Introduction to the Graphical Kernel System (GKS)
Introduction to the Graphical Kernel System (GKS)
Frank Robert Albert Hopgood, 1986
Appendices and an index allow the work to be used as a reference manual. All application programmers with an interest in computer graphics will find this book an invaluable aid.
Device-independent graphics: with examples from IBM personal computers
Device-independent graphics: with examples from IBM personal computers
Robert F. Sproull, W. R. Sutherland, Michael K. Ullner, 1985
Computer graphics; Interactive computer graphics; Graphics hardware; Graphics software; The graphical kernel system; Using the graphical kernel system; Getting started with GKS; An interactive drawing program; Extending the application; ...
Fundamentals Of Computer Graphics And Multimedia
Fundamentals Of Computer Graphics And Multimedia
D. P. Mukherjee, 2004
Special interest groups on graphics and the hardware manufacturers sat together to outline a basic set of norms to be followed. The Graphics Kernel System (GKS) was one of the first generation standards widely followed in computer graphics ...
Development of Google searches


Blog posts on the term
Graphics Kernel System
Introduction to the Graphical Kernal System (GKS), Second Edition (Apic Studies in Data Processing)
The authors -- all members of the British team that contributed to the specification of GKS -- have created a very readable tutorial on the Graphical Kernel System.--COMPUTER GRAPHICSThe authors manage to explain abstract concepts with simple, yet concise prose.
www.zhaxia.com/012355571x/introduction-to-the-graphical-kernal-system-gks-second-edition-apic-studies-in-data-processing.html
Harmanpreet Singh | “Rise of OpenGL” and Qt
This post describes my Internet search and findings about OpenGL and other related tools. Post contains excerpts and links from referred websites. Graphical Kernel System (GKS) The Graphical Kernel System (GKS) was the first ISO standard for low-level computer graphics, introduced in 1977 [0]. GKS defines a common interface to interactive computer graphics for application programs. GKS…
singhharman.wordpress.com/2013/06/23/rise-of-opengl-and-qt/
ISO 8651-1:1988, Information processing systems - Computer graphics - Graphical Kernel System (GKS) language bindings - Part 1: FORTRAN | Parts Of a Computer
DESCRIPTION
partsof-acomputer.blogspot.com/2010/02/iso-8651-11988-information-processing.html
Computer Science Solved MCQs: Computer Graphics Solved MCQs
The basic element of a picture in volume graphics is Pixel Volsel Voxel None of above _____________________________________________________________________________________ The ISO standard for computer Graphics is Graphics Kernel System Graphics Standard System Computer graphics standard None of above _____________________________________________________________________________________ The amount of light emitted by the phosphor coating depends on the? Number of electrons striking the screen Speed of electrons striking the screen Distance from the cathode to the screen None of above _____________________________________________________________________________________ The best hidden surface removal algorithm is Painters Depth buffer Area subdivision Depends on the application _____________________________________________________________________________________ Computer generated models of physical,financial and economic systems are often used for ? Entertainment Quality Control Educational Aid None of above _____________________________________________________________________________________ The . .
cs-mcqs.blogspot.com/2013/05/computer-graphics-solved-mcqs.html
Entrepreneur Spotlight: Laura Kilcrease | uthinktanknick
This morning I had the opportunity to spend 45 minutes on the phone with an entrepreneur who has helped build Austin's entrepreneurial eco-system from the ground up since the 1980's. Laura Kilcrease is now the 2012 Entrepreneur-in-Residence(EIR) in McCombs School of Business at UT-Austin. Through her EIR position, Laura is striving towards the objective of…
uthinktanknick.com/2012/10/18/entrepreneur-spotlight-laura-kilcrease/
DOEACC NOTES: COMPUTER GRAPHICS AND MULTIMEDIA SYSTEMS - 1 &2
What are the differences between raster-scan CRTs and random-access or vector CRTs? [4] Raster-scan system:- 1)raster displays have less resolution. 2)the lines produced are zig-zag as the plotted values are discrete.
doeacc-materials.blogspot.com/2012/08/what-are-differences-betweenraster-scan_20.html
Introduction To Basic Computer Graphics Part 2
Graphics Standards and Primitives A person who wants to develop a graphics program has to learn how to access the graphics capabilities of the system that he/she is working on. Unfortunately, there are many graphics devices out there in the […]
what-when-how.com/computer-graphics-and-geometric-modeling/introduction-to-basic-computer-graphics-part-2/
GeomTech: Opportunity to learn ACIS Geometric Kernel and Hoops 3D Graphics system in 3 day workshop
I am attending workshop organized by Spatial Corporation from February 21st to 24th, 2011 at IISc, Bangalore. ACIS- Geometric Kernel, 3D Interop – CAD translation library and Hoops – 3D graphics system by Techsoft3D would be covered in 4 days.
blog.geomtech.org/2011/02/opportunity-to-learn-acis-geometric.html
Computer Graphics by A. P. Godse | NaviMumbaiCity.com
navimumbaicity.com/computer-graphics-by-a-p-godse/
Understanding Digital Data | Mert TOL
Digital data is able to represent most media types, whether text, sound, image, moving image, or new media types such as hypertext or relational databases, in a unified way. In the end, everything is just a bit stream.
www.merttol.com/articles/code/understanding-digital-data.html
123