American civil service
The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act (ch. 27, 22 Stat. 403) of United States is a federal law established in 1883 that stipulated that government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit. The act provided selection of government employees by competitive exams, rather than ties to politicians or political affiliation. It also made it illegal to fire or demote government employees for political reasons and prohibits soliciting campaign donations on Federal government property. To enforce the merit system and the judicial system, the law also created the United States Civil Service Commission. A crucial result was the shift of the parties to reliance on funding from business, since they could no longer depend on patronage hopefuls.
Started during the Chester Alan Arthur administration, the Pendleton Act served as a response to the massive public support of civil service reform that grew following President James Garfield's assassination by Charles Julius Guiteau. Despite his previous support of the patronage system, Arthur became an ardent supporter of civil service reform as president. The Act was passed into law on January 16, 1883. The Act was sponsored by Senator George H. Pendleton, Democratic Senator of Ohio, and written by Dorman Bridgeman Eaton, a staunch opponent of the patronage system who was later first chairman of the United States Civil Service Commission. However, the law would also prove to be a major political liability for Arthur. The law offended machine politicians within the Republican Party and did not prove to be enough for the party's reformers; hence, Arthur lost popularity within the Republican Party and was unable to win the party's Presidential nomination at the 1884 Republican National Convention.
The law only applied to federal government jobs: not to the state and local jobs that were the basis for political machines. At first, the Pendleton Act only covered very few jobs, as only 10% of the US government's civilian employees had civil service jobs. However, there was a ratchet provision whereby outgoing presidents could lock in their own appointees by converting their jobs to civil service. After a series of party reversals at the presidential level (1884, 1888, 1892, 1896), the result was that most federal jobs were under civil service. One result was more expertise and less politics.

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United States federal civil service - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Civil Service Reform in the U.S. was a major issue in the late 19th century at the national level, and in the early 20th century at the state level. Proponents ...
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Civil service - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The British adopted a meritocratic civil service following the Northcote-Trevelyan Report in 1853, and the Americans did likewise in 1883, with the Pendleton ...
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civil service: History | Infoplease.com
Important changes were made in the structure of the U.S. civil service as a result of the reports issued (1949, 1955) by the two commissions known as the Hoover ...
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In addition to job listings for all 50 states and major U.S. cities, this comprehensive site features career and job information and civil service test resources.
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American civil service
Green Party Trade Union Group: Peru: Civil Service Act threatens trade union rights
Peru: Civil Service Act threatens trade union rights In partnership with Public Services International, representing 20 million workers who deliver vital public services in 150 countries. Peru's proposed new Civil Service Law contains serious threats to human rights including the labour and trade union rights of over half a million Peruvians who provide public services.
gptublog.blogspot.com/2013/08/peru-civil-service-act-threatens-trade.html
The long-forgotten racial attitudes and policies of Woodrow Wilson » Professor Voices | Blog Archive | Boston University
www.bu.edu/professorvoices/2013/03/04/the-long-forgotten-racial-attitudes-and-policies-of-woodrow-wilson/
Taking Sides: Should the U.S. have a civil service requirement? — Brown Daily Herald
Asher '15 and Hudson '14 square off on this week's Taking Sides topic.
www.browndailyherald.com/2013/04/12/taking-sides-should-the-u-s-have-a-civil-service-requirement/
U.S. Postal Service Honors Civil Rights Movement and Tennis Icon Althea Gibson with stamp | The Chocolate Voice Magazine
www.thechocolatevoice.com/u-s-postal-service-honors-civil-rights-movement-and-tennis-icon-althea-gibson-with-stamp/
Defense.gov News Article: Dempsey Calls on Americans to Discuss Civil-Military Relations
www.defense.gov/News/NewsArticle.aspx?ID=120412
Is there a race wage gap in America? | Crosscut.com
A new database compares employment progress (or lack thereof) for minority civil servants in the country's 100 largest metro areas. Seattle's doing pretty well.
crosscut.com/2013/08/27/workplace-labor/116135/data-on-white-v-minority-pay-govt-jobs-seattle/
Beware the apparatchikacy of the Civil Service System » BobKrumm.com
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State Dept Establishes Office of Faith Based Community Initiatives – Director Says “I Am Glad American Civil Religion Is Dying” |
Posted on August 9, 2013 by Tim Brown.
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Interview: David Parker, UK Space Agency
The UK has long had a strong space industry but, until recently, government support for it was small-scale and fragmented. David Parker, UK Space Agency chief
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